Ingredients in Olive Oil Kill Cancer Cells In Vitro

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Olive Oil (2007, Alex Ex, Wikimedia Commons)

Extra virgin olive oil contains many chemicals which show anticancer properties.

Numerous studies have shown that various constituent chemicals in olive oil have anticancer properties. Olive oil contains several phenolic antioxidants including squalene, oleuropein, and oleic acid, several flavonoids including quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin, and an anti-inflammatory phenol called oleocanthal. Like common NSAIDs, oleocanthal is a non-selective COX inhibitor. Researchers at Rutgers University and Hunters College in New York recently explored the mechanisms oleocanthal uses to selectively destroy cancer cells in vitro (in the laboratory).

Oleocanthal kills cancer cells by rupturing vesicles called lysosomes that store the cell’s waste. Specifically, oleocanthal inhibits acid sphingomyelinase activity, which “destabilizes the interaction between proteins necessary for lysosomal membrane stability.” This effect is not seen in healthy cells. These findings by a chemist and two oncology biologists were published in the journal Molecular and Cellular Oncology.

Earlier studies have shown that oleocanthal kills cancer cells in vitro through c-MET inhibition as well, in multiple myeloma, prostate and breast cancer cells. c-MET is a tyrosine kinase receptor which triggers tumor growth in cancer cells, correlating with poor prognosis.

Cancer biologists Foster and LeGendre discovered that oleocanthal killed cells in multiple cancer cell lines in as little as 30 minutes, while only temporarily interrupting the life cycle of healthy cells. The researchers noted that clearly the next step is to test oleocanthal in living animals.

Low incidences of breast cancer in the Mediterranean area was linked to extra virgin olive oil consumption in 2007 by Spanish researchers. Studying the phenolic compound oleuropein, researchers found that it reversed acquired resistance to Herceptin in HER2 over expressing breast cancer cells, in vitro. When such cells were co-cultured with Herceptin and oleuropein, the researchers found a 50-fold increase in the drug’s efficacy.

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New Study Suggests Dietary Compounds Help Prevent Breast Cancer

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New research from Taiwan and US researchers lays out many arguments in favor of using natural dietary substances to help prevent breast cancer. The researchers looked specifically at natural phenolic compounds in the diet, a large class of organic molecules made up of a benzene ring with at least one hydroxyl (OH) attached to it. Most foods have some level of phenols in them, and many of these substances have well-understood anticancer properties. The study appeared in the journal Molecular Nutrition & Food Research.

Breast Cancer Pink Ribbon

New study suggests phenolic compounds in the diet help prevent and treat breast cancer (Niki K—Creative Commons)

The National Cancer Institute in the United States estimates that in 2015, over 230,000 cases of breast will be diagnosed in US women, and over 40,000 women will die from the disease. It’s the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the US, exceeded only by lung cancer. Around the year 2000, breast cancer incidence rates dropped by approximately 7% after the use hormone in menopausal women was discouraged, but rates have leveled off since then. About 1% of breast cancer cases are in men. As of 2014, almost 3 million women in the US alone have a history of breast cancer, including women in treatment and finished with treatment.

In their paper, the US and Taiwanese researchers note that “recent literature and reviews have demonstrated that dietary natural phenolic compounds can prevent breast tumorigenesis, improve phytochemical bioavailability, and increase drug sensitivity.” They also point to multiple epidemiological studies. Roughly 10-15% of breast cancer cases are believed to involve inherited traits, which means the vast majority of cases involve extrinsic (environmental) factors.

Breast carcinogenesis is complex. Hormonal signaling, genetic predispositions, and epigenetics all may play a role. The researchers believe there are “several lines of support” for the belief that dietary phenols may reverse adverse gene expression and correct some of the epigenetic processes which lead to the development of a tumor. Dietary phenolic compounds, including many common flavonoids and polyphenols, may be effective chemopreventive agents while creating low toxicity. Some flavonoids such as genistein offer hormone regulation as phytoestrogens, while others possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other anticancer effects.

The researchers note that some of the more well-studied phenolic compounds have extremely low bioavailability, which prevents their constituent molecules from entering the blood stream efficiently after consumption. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, from green tea) and resveratrol (from grapes) bioavailability after oral administration in humans is only about 1%. Curcumin (from tumeric) also has notoriously low bioavailability. To combat this problem, many strategies are used. Some phenols have increased bioavailability when they are eaten with fats (olive oil is a good choice) or foods which inhibit their metabolizing enzymes (e.g. piperine). Still other supplement makers have experimented with unique formulations of phenols. For example, BCM-95 is a patented curcumin formulation which claims to provide almost 7 times the bioavailability of standard curcumin.

The paper highlights a wide variety of phenols and their mechanisms, concluding that “dietary natural phenolic compounds are promising candidates for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic breast cancer treatment strategies.”

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Coffee Consumption Lowers Risk of Endometrial Cancer

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On the heals of a giant epidemiological study of coffee released last month showing a reduced risk of melanoma for heavy coffee drinkers, new British research this month also shows women who drink coffee have lower risks of endometrial cancer, a cancer of the lining of the uterus.

Coffee Cup

Two large studies this year of heavy coffee drinkers show substantial anticancer effects

This study, using data from 3 studies totaling more than 450,000 women, found that women who drink more than 3 cups of coffee per day had an 18% lower risk of endometrial cancer. The study analyzed more than 80 different nutrients looking for correlative data, and coffee was the only chemopreventive substance found in both studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, and 2 Nurses Health Studies.

This is not the first time coffee drinking has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Several international studies have described this link, but no study has yet identified the specific anticancer mechanism within coffee. While caffeine is an obvious ingredient to study, a 2007 study tested this possibility and found no link between caffeine consumption and endometrial cancer risk. In the current study, researchers did not track caffeinated vs. decaffeinated coffee drinking.

Other theories suggest that coffee may moderate estrogen levels in hormone-driven cancers; when estrogen levels are elevated relative to progesterone, the risk of endometrial cancer increases. Coffee also contains a variety of antioxidants which may protect against free radicals implicated in cancer. Data from a 2009 Swedish study of over 60,000 women also showed coffee reduced the risk of endometrial cancer by 12% for every cup of coffee per day, however the “association seemed largely confined to overweight and obese women.”

The new British study was published in the February issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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World Cancer Day 2015

World Cancer Day 2015

Feb. 4 is World Cancer Day 2015

Today, Feb. 4, 2015, is World Cancer Day and this year’s theme is “Not Beyond Us” to emphasize that solutions exist. This message is not only important for existing cancer patients, but the world’s population as a whole. According to Cancer Research UK, 1 in 2 people will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime, so cancer is truly a shared human problem, not simply a disease some of us experience. World Cancer Day is organized every year by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) to raise awareness about cancer and help make the disease a global health priority.

But cancer news is far from being all bad. People are living longer, and since 60% of cancer cases are diagnosed in people over age 65, the risk of cancer overall is increasing as the world’s population ages. But many cancers are becoming preventable, and while more people may be getting cancer, more are beating it as well.

For example, in the last 25 years, breast cancer deaths in the US have declined dramatically. In 1989, the US breast cancer death rate was 33.2 per 100,000 women. By 2011, the rate had dropped to 21.5…a roughly 35% drop. In addition, some of the top cancer killers in the West are largely preventable cancers, such as certain types of colon and lung cancer. Regular colonoscopies and mammograms, along with smoking cessation efforts, are believed to be some of the largest factors in the overall decline in cancer deaths.

Several events around the world were held, including a web/Twitter chat sponsored by the American Cancer Society. For the 5th year in a row, the Empire State Building in New York will be lit with a special blue and orange theme, the colors of the UICC. According to the Society, “Around the world, communities will hold festivals, walks, seminars, public information campaigns and other events to raise awareness and educate people on how to fight cancer through screening and early detection, through healthy eating and physical activity, by quitting smoking, and by urging public officials to make cancer issues a priority.”

The “Not Beyond Us” theme highlights 4 main areas of education and action for World Cancer Day:

  • Choosing Healthy Lives. Lifestyle and diet choices dramatically affect cancer incidence.
  • Early Detection. Screening and understanding warning signs have profound effects in preventing cancer.
  • Achieving Treatment for All. Equity in medicine is improving but has a long way to go. Recent studies continue to show that wealth correlates well with cancer survival.
  • Maximizing Quality of Life: Access to palliative care is critical
Wealth Correlates Linearly With Cancer Survival

The linear correlation of national health spending in European countries and cancer survival.

The need to encourage people to choose healthy lifestyles has increased in the last 50 years as lifestyle and environment are now understood to be major factors in cancer incidence. People can do a variety of simple things to dramatically reduce their chances of getting serious cancers, including:

  • Eat a low-calorie diet rich with pesticide-free vegetables and fruits
  • Supplement vitamins and minerals as needed
  • Avoid carcinogenic substances and activities, including cigarette smoke, chewing tobacco, excessive alcohol, pesticides, and other hazardous effects
  • Exercise regularly
  • Embrace positive mental health
  • Get regular screening

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Pfizer’s Ibrance Receives Early FDA Approval in Metastatic Breast Cancer

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In a highly unusual move, the US FDA today approved Pfizer’s new breast cancer drug Ibrance (palbociclib) far before it’s expected April decision, and without the benefit of a pivotal Phase III clinical trial. Ibrance could become the new standard of care for advanced, metastatic breast cancer patients. The drug is now approved for breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor positive (ER+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2-) tumors, which represent approximately 60% of the patient population.

The initial data from Ibrance’s Phase II study PALOMA-1 that the FDA was encouraged to approve this first-in-class drug. Ibrance is an oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor which blocks the enzymes CDK4 and CDK6, both of which are commonly dysregulated in cancer and help spur uncontrolled growth of cancer cells.

PFS for palbociclib plus letrozole vs letrozole alone in Pfizer's PALOMA-1 Phase II study

PFS for palbociclib plus letrozole vs letrozole alone in Pfizer’s PALOMA-1 Phase II study

Pfizer’s PALOMA-1 Phase II study measured the current standard of care in this patient group, letrozole, with letrozole plus palbociclib. Pfizer recruited 2 sets of patients, 66 in Part 1 and 99 in Part 2, for a total of 165. The median progression-free survival (PFS) for the Part 1 group was 26.1 months with letrozole plus palbociclib compared with 5.7 months for letrozole alone. Those numbers were released with understandably great fanfare in 2012 at the 2012 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. When the numbers were combined for Part 1 and 2 and reported at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2014 in San Diego, the total median PFS for the letrozole plus palbociclib group dropped to 20.2 months, compared to 10.2 months for letrozole alone. Overall, this still almost doubled PFS over the current standard of care.

The most frequently reported adverse event for palbociclib plus letrozole in PALOMA-1 was neutropenia. Adverse events associated more frequently with the combination than with letrozole alone included neutropenia (grade 3, 48%, grade 4, 6%), leukopenia (grade 3, 19%), fatigue, and anemia.

Pfizer’s Senior Vice President of Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Mace Rothenberg, said, “This approval represents the first treatment advance for this group of women in more than 10 years.” Their Phase III trial, PALOMA-2, is fully enrolled and will continue.

One note of concern with Ibrance is the sometimes elusive data point of overall survival (OS). It’s widely believed that progression-free survival is an easier gauge than overall survival, and in this case, a dramatic improvement in PFS did not translate well to an improvement in OS. While PFS was dramatically improved in patients treated with the combination of palbociclib and letrozole, the difference in overall survival compared to the letrozole group alone (37.5 vs. 33.3 months, respectively) was not statistically significant. Pfizer has not updated the overall survival data from the trial since April 6, 2014.

Ibrance continues to be tested in a wide variety of cancers, including brainstem gliomas, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, non-small cell lung cancer, and GI stromal tumors. Studies of the effects of proton pump inhibitors and H2-receptor antagonists (antacids) on the absorption of palbociclib are ongoing.

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Most Cancers Are NOT Just “Bad Luck”

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One of the first widely-reported cancer stories of 2015 was a widely publicized study in the journal Science which stated that “only a third of the variation in cancer risk among tissues is attributable to environmental factors or inherited predispositions.” The other two-thirds of cancer cases, argued Cristian Tomasetti and Bert Vogelstein of Johns Hopkins University, was due simply to “bad luck.”

In UndoCancer’s reporting of the Tomasetti-Vogelstein study on January 7, 2015, we expressed doubt about the authors’ conclusions. Now, a month later, a chorus of other researchers have weighed in on the matter. A few days after the Science article even lead author Tomasetti clarified, “We have not showed that two-thirds of cancer cases are about bad luck. Cancer is in general a combination of bad luck, bad environment and bad inherited genes.”

So who is to blame for all the headlines about “bad luck” causing most cancers? Professor George Davey-Smith,a clinical epidemiologist at Bristol University, argues that the study’s authors are to blame. The reference to “bad luck” was prominently used in the Science article’s abstract, as well as an accompanying editorial titled “The Bad Luck of Cancer.”

David Hunter, Harvard University’s Vincent L. Gregory Professor in Cancer Prevention, penned an op-ed in the Boston Globe on January 15 in which he took issue with the conclusions of Tomasetti and Vogelstein. Hunter wrote, “The vast majority of research does not show that cancer is the result of bad luck. Rather it shows that most cancers are theoretically preventable.”

Hunter points out that cancer rates vary dramatically within populations and between populations, and these differences can not be explained simply by genetic differences between races. In fact, in 1999, another set of Johns Hopkins researchers noted that Asian women who move to the United States, for example, see their breast cancer rates doubling within a decade. Breast cancer incidence is historically 4-7 times higher in the US than in Asia. Diet, tobacco use, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus, obesity, environment chemicals, radiation, and many other factors are all believed to play important roles in the incidence of cancers.

Tomasetti and Vogelstein, in the course of trying to actually write about why some types of cancer are more common than others, fell victim to the age-old temptation to make dramatic proclamations. The mainstream press should not be held accountable for reporting the specific language set forth in a peer-reviewed journal. And in the future, researchers will hopefully look back on this incident to further remind them to exercise moderation and clarity when explaining their results and ramifications.

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Green Tea and Oral Cancer

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Green tea (2011, Alessandro Martini)

Green tea (2011, Alessandro Martini)

Green tea has long been shown to possess anticancer properties but continues to be an enigma for mainstream Western oncologists who question the conflicting data seen in human studies. While green tea is clearly safe to drink, and clearly shows anticancer properties in the lab, some large studies in humans have not shown strong benefits. But others have.

New research at Penn State University in the US is adding to the body of in vitro laboratory evidence showing remarkable and clear benefits of green tea. The work there of Joshua Lambert, Ph.D., and others, is looking at green tea in the context of oral cancer. Lambert’s in vitro testing has shown that green tea induces oxidative stress in oral cancer cells but also exerts antioxidant effects in normal cells. In other words, green tea selectively kills cancer cells.

In Asian countries, green tea is a staple drink, developed over 4,000 years ago in China from the plant Camellia sinensis. Of the many potentially beneficial constituent chemicals in green tea, the catechin EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) is believed to have the most potent effect. Catechins are a type of flavonoid, which in turn comprise the most common group of polyphenols in the human diet. People in Asia frequently consume 3 to 5 cups per day, yielding at least 250 mg/day of catechins.

Exactly how catechins protect healthy cells while killing cancer cells is not yet clearly understood, but there are several hints. Lambert’s team found evidence that EGCG selectively affects the activity of a protein called sirtuin 3, or SIRT3, which “plays an important role in mitochondrial function and in anti-oxidant response in lots of tissues in the body.” EGCG appears to turn off SIRT3 in cancer cells, and turn it on in healthy cells. Other studies have shown that the p57 tumor suppressor gene is responsible for the survival of healthy cells when exposed to green tea polyphenols.

In vitro and epidemiological studies of green tea in Asian countries largely show chemopreventive and therapeutic properties in most types of cancer, especially GI cancers (esophageal, stomach, bladder, and other gastrointestinal cancers). There is substantial evidence that green tea also reduces risk of stroke, lowers blood pressure, lowers fasting blood sugar, lowers total and LDL cholesterol, and reduces risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

A plausible explanation for why large human studies have not found consistent chemopreventive effects from green tea is the fact that different hybrid source plants, growing conditions, horticultural practices, production processes, and even preparations, all contribute to the constituent chemicals found in green tea. A 2012 study by the independent research group ConsumerLab.com found widely varying amounts of EGCG in green tea products. In general, they found that bottled green teas ad the least amount of EGCG, while standardized EGCG extract supplements provided a reliable way of getting the targeted amount. EGCG supplements also provided the least expensive way to consume EGCG. Hopefully future human studies will utilize standardized extracts.

Green tea interferes with some and perhaps all proteasome inhibitors, most notably the chemo drug bortezomib (Velcade).

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Updated MicroVAX Immunotherapy Trial Results Announced

Recently, the Phase I clinical trial of the novel TAA/ecdCD40L cancer vaccine provided an update on it’s first 4 patients. The trial plans to recruit at least 16 more patients in 2015. The vaccine is both therapeutic and preventative, and is designed to work in a variety of common cancers which originate in epithelial tissue, including ovarian, breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and lung cancer. It is believe that the vaccine has no effect on healthy cells.

The TAA/ecdCD40L vaccine is made by the small US biotech company MicroVAX, but the human trial is taking place in Singapore, under a jointly-sponsored program between the US FDA and Singapore’s Health Sciences Authority. This novel vaccine uses a recombinant adenovirus vector to deliver 2 special molecules to cancer cells: a MUC-1 antigen protein which is expressed in epithelial cancers but not healthy cells, and the CD40 ligand to boost the body’s immune system.

Of the 4 metastatic or recurrent patients who have thus far received the vaccine, 2 have ovarian cancer while the other 2 have breast cancer. The vaccine, which is administered as a simple subcutaneous shot, was well tolerated with no significant adverse effects. One of the breast cancer patients experienced a transient skin rash about 2 weeks after treatment. Skin rashes are common immune system reactions.

National Cancer Centre Singapore

National Cancer Centre Singapore

One of the ovarian cancer patients has stage IV disease that has been stable since she entered the trial last October. She flies in every 2 weeks from her home in Helsinki, Finland, highlighting the dramatic need for new solutions in this type of cancer in particular.

Sinapore’s National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), which treats 70% of that country’s cancer patients, runs the MicroVAX TAA/ecdCD40L Phase I trial. For inquiries to participate in the trial, the public can contact NCCS’s clinical research coordinator, Ms. Chong Hui Shan at +65 6436-8431 or chong.hui.shan@nccs.com.sg.

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Anti-epilepsy Drug May Fight Breast Cancer

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Researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom today published data showing the existing anti-epilepsy drug phenytoin (Dilantin) may fight breast cancer. They have completed in vitro (e.g. using a petri dish) tests, as well as animal tests, but have yet to test their findings in humans.

Phenytoin (Dilantin)

The sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drug phenytoin inhibits breast tumor growth and metastasis

Phenytoin is a sodium-channel blocking drug, developed over 100 years ago, and was popularized as an anticonvulsant because of it’s lack of sedative effects, especially compared to phenobarbital. It was first approved by the US FDA in 1953 and thus is no longer a patented drug.

The lead researcher, Dr. Willi Brackenbury, wrote “This is the first study to show that phenytoin reduces both the growth and spread of breast cancer tumour cells. This indicates that re-purposing antiepileptic and antiarrhythmic drugs is worthy of further study as a potentially novel anti-cancer therapy.”

In November, 2014, Brackenbury and other researchers announced a new human study in breast, bowel, and prostate cancer patients, to study overall survival in patients using sodium channel-blockers like phenytoin.

Curiously, several anticonvulsant drugs have also shown anticancer properties, especially valproic acid (Depakote). Valproic acid happens to be a powerful HDAC inhibitor, limiting the cell cycle transition of cancer cells and helping the expression of beneficial proteins. In particular, HDAC inhibitors have been shown to be radiosensitizing agents, which have already shown in human studies to improve survival in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Previously-approved drugs from other medical conditions which are used for their anticancer properties are referred to as off-label drugs.

Another popular anticonvulsant strategy not involving drugs is the ketogenic diet, in which patients eat a diet rich in fat and low in carbs, similar in practice to popular diets such as the “Atkins” and “South Beach” diets. The Epilepsy Foundation explains, “Several studies have shown that the ketogenic diet does reduce or prevent seizures in many children whose seizures could not be controlled by medications.” The Foundation notes that ketogenic diets are usually not recommended for adults simply because “the restricted food choices make it hard to follow.” It’s not well understood why this diet helps control seizures.

Ketogenic diets for cancer patients, often involving fat/carb ratios approaching 4:1, strive to reduce the amount of glucose available to power cells, forcing the cells to convert energy from ketones instead. Cancer cells can not metabolize ketones, and thus die. Many researchers have explored ketogenic diets as an anticancer therapy for decades, however, since there is no patent for pharmaceutical companies to capitalize on, it’s difficult to fund trials in humans. For more information about ketogenic diets, and commercial supplements which help patients find a nutritionally sound method of using the diet, patients should consult their doctor as well as several available books on the subject.

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9 New Cancer Drugs Approved in 2014

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2014 was a busy year for the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 41 brand new drugs were approved, and 9 of them were for cancer, according to the US National Cancer Institute (NCI). This is the highest number of new drugs approved in 20 years.

Manufacture of Monoclonal Antibodies

Growing monoclonal antibodies in the lab. (NCI Photo by Linda Bartlett)

Many of the new drugs approved are biologics, derived from living organisms rather than chemicals. Biologics tend to include monoclonal antibodies, whole cells, or recombinant DNA products. The FDA researcher Henry Francis, M.D., reports that biologics are “a trend that continues to drive cancer drug development and approval by the FDA.” Over half of 2014’s new cancer drugs are monoclonal antibodies. Many new immunotherapies derived from living material are expected to be approved in the next few years.

The acceleration in the development of biologics has generally been good news for cancer patients, especially since biotech companies tend “to target more difficult-to-treat populations that would be too small for pharmaceutical companies to be able to recoup drug-development costs”, according to a report by Thomas Morrow, M.D. Many cancers fall into the category of “orphan diseases”, an official FDA designation for conditions whose annual population is not big enough to attract pharmaceutical development.

Unfortunately, biologics tend to be very expensive to produce and administer, as many patients discovered in the early days of the monoclonal antibody Avastin. And as with Avastin, Morrow believes that while “most of today’s blockbuster drugs are chemically derived, the next generation of blockbusters could be biologics.”

The 9 new drugs approved by the FDA in 2014 are:

  • Belinostat (Beleodaq) to treat relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma, approved July 2014
  • Blinatumomab (Blincyto) to treat Philadelphia chromosome-negative relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, approved December 2014
  • Ceritinib (Zykadia) to treat ALK-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, approved April 2014
  • Idelalisib (Zydelig) to treat relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and small lymphocytic lymphoma, approved July 2014
  • Netupitant and palonosetron (Akynzeo) a combination pill to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, approved October 2014
  • Nivolumab (Opdivo) to treat unresectable or metastatic melanoma, approved December 2014
  • Olaparib (Lynparza) to treat previously treated BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer, approved December 2014
  • Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) to treat unresectable or metastatic melanoma, approved September 2014
  • Ramucirumab (Cyramza) to treat gastric (stomach) cancer, approved April 2014

One of the most recently approved treatments on this list is Amgen’s Blincyto, a first-of-its-kind immunotherapy treatment approved just last month. It’s a bispecific antibody whose Y-shaped protein directly recruits T cells to contact tumor cells. It’s a very powerful weapon against cancer, even cancers which prove refractory to other treatments. Currently, Blincyto is only indicated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a cancer of the blood and bone marrow which is the most common type of cancer in children. In its final study, Blincyto delivered a complete response (complete remission) in 32% of the patients. However such a powerful immune response comes with the challenge of over-stimulating the immune system to attack healthy tissue. A story published today by Fox News reported that “at least 30 bispecific antibodies are believed to be in development” from various drug makers.

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